Lesson 2.3 Residential Design

Concepts
1. Responsible designers maximize the potential of the property, minimize impact on the environment, and incorporate universal design concepts in order to create an attractive and functional space.
2. Responsible designers anticipate the needs and requirements of the users.
3. Codes are created to protect the health and safety of the public, dictate the minimum requirements that must be met in a building project, and constrain the location of structures, utilities, building construction, and landscape components placed on a site.
4. Appropriate flow rate, pressure, and water quality are necessary for effective water supply and use.
5. When utilities are not available within a reasonable distance to be economically brought on site, substitutions must be designed and constructed.
6. Utilities and systems must be properly sized to minimize cost and appropriately serve the project and the structure occupants.
7. The design of electrical and plumbing systems must be carefully integrated into the architectural and structural design of a building.
8. Careful landscape design that takes into consideration local environmental conditions can improve energy efficiency, reduce noise, reduce water usage, reduce storm water runoff, and improve the visual impact of a building project.
9. Storm water runoff from a site often increases when the site is developed and is frequently regulated by local jurisdictions.
10.Universal Design involves the design of products and environments to be usable by all people and includes barrier free accessibility to projects that may be required by federal regulations.
11.Green or sustainable design reduces the negative impact of a project on the environment and human health and improves the performance of the project during its life-cycle.

Performance Objectives
It is expected that students will:
  • Apply elements of good residential design to the design of a basic house to meet the needs of a client.
  • Create a home design that complies with applicable codes and requirements.
  • Incorporate sustainable building principles and universal design concepts into a residential design.
  • Create bubble diagrams and sketch a floor plan.
  • Identify residential foundation types and choose an appropriate foundation for a residential application.
  • Calculate the head loss and estimate the water pressure for a given water supply system.
  • Create sketches to document a preliminary plumbing and a preliminary electrical system layout for a residence that complies with applicable codes.
  • Design an appropriate sewer lateral for wastewater management for a building that complies with applicable codes.
  • Create a site opportunities map and sketch a project site.
  • Choose an appropriate building location on a site based on orientation and other site-specific information.
  • Calculate the storm water runoff from a site before and after development.
  • Document the design of a home using 3D architectural design software and construction drawings.

Essential Questions
1. How do you achieve a balance between cost-saving measures, important features, and environmental responsibility when designing a residential structure?
2. What are the advantages and disadvantages of using 3D architectural software rather than creating hand-produced plans?
3. Why are organizations such as LEED important?
4. When planning a project, how does the availability of public utilities impact the design?
5. What options are available for the management of wastewater from a building?
6. What are the important considerations when design a plumbing system?
7. Why should a designer know about the different types of lighting and their applications?
8. What are the important considerations when designing an electrical system?
9. What information is important when documenting the design of a building?

Key Terms
Term
Definition
Berm
A horizontal ledge cut between the foot and top of an embankment to stabilize the slope by intercepting sliding earth.
Building Code
Legal requirements designed to protect the public by providing guidelines for structural, electrical, plumbing, and mechanical areas of a structure.
Building Envelope
The portion of a building that encloses the treated environment, including the walls, ceiling or roof, and floor.
Circuit
The various conductors, connections, and devices found along the path of electric flow from the source through the components and back to the source.
Circuit Breaker
An electric safety switch that automatically opens a circuit when excessive amperage occurs.
Cleanout
A fitting with a removable plug that is placed in plumbing drainage pipe lines to allow access for cleaning out the pipe.
Coniferous
Cone-bearing trees with year-round leaves that are long, thin, and needle-like.
Construction Type
Five broad categories of construction found in the International Building Code that are based on the fire-resistive capabilities of the materials used.
Deciduous
Broad-leafed trees that seasonally shed their leaves.
Distribution Panel
A box in which the wires from the meter are connected to individual circuit breakers, which are connected to separate circuits for distribution to various locations throughout the building.
Drain
Any pipe that carries wastewater or water-borne wastes in a building drainage system.
Drainage
Removal of groundwater or surface water, or of water from structures, by gravity or pumping.
Drainage Fixture Unit
A measure of the probable discharge into the drainage system by various types of plumbing fixtures.
Drainage System
Piping within a building that conveys sewage, rainwater, or other liquid wastes to a point of disposal.
Ducts
Pipes, typically made of sheet metal, used to conduct hot or cold air in the HVAC system.
Easement
A limited right to make use of a property owned by another.
Egress
Exits or a way out.
Electric Meter
An instrument used to measure electric power.
Exit Discharge
That portion of the means-of-egress system between the termination of the exit and a public way.
Grading
The moving of soil to affect the elevation of land at a construction site.
Ground
An electrical connection to the earth.
Hot Water
Water at a temperature greater than or equal to 110 º F (43º C).
Individual Sewage Disposal System
A system for disposal of domestic sewage by means of a septic tank cesspool mechanical treatment to serve a single establishment or building.
Ingress
Entrances or a means to enter.
Invert Elevation
The elevation of the bottom of the inside of the pipe wall.
Lavatory
A fixture that is designed for washing hands and face, usually found in a bathroom.
Main
The principal pipe artery to which branches are connected.
Nonpotable Water
Water not safe for drinking, personal, or culinary utilization.
Outlet
An electrical connection used to plug in devices. A duplex outlet, with two outlets, is the typical wall plug.
Potable Water
Water free from impurities present in amounts sufficient to cause disease or harmful physiological effects and conforming to the regulations of the public health authority having jurisdiction.
Plumbing Fixture
A device that is connected to the water distribution system and demands a supply of water; discharges wastewater, liquid-borne waste material, or sewage to the drainage system; or requires both a water supply connection and a discharge to the drainage system.
Pressure Head
The pressure of water at a given point in a pipe arising from the pressure in it.
Prevailing Winds
Direction from which the wind most frequently blows in a given area of the country.
Rainfall Intensity
The rate of precipitation, expressed in inches per hour. Also known as precipitation intensity or storm intensity.
Return Period
Average length of time between occurrences of a storm of a given magnitude or greater. Also known as recurrence interval.
Riser
A water supply pipe that extends vertically one story or more to carry water to fixtures.
Sanitary Sewer
A sewer that conveys sewage but excludes storm, surface, and ground water.
Setback
Minimum distance that the zoning ordinance requires must be maintained between a structure and property lines or between two structures.
Sewage
Any liquid waste containing animal or vegetable matter in suspension or solution, including liquids containing chemicals in solution.
Sewer
A pipe, normally underground, that carries wastewater and refuse.
Soil Pipe
A pipe that conveys sewage containing fecal matter to the building drain or building sewer.
Stack
Any vertical line of soil, waste, vent, or inside conductor piping that extends through at least one story.
Static Head
Pressure of a fluid due to the head of fluid above some reference point.
Storm Duration
Length of time that rain falls during a single storm.
Switch Leg
The electrical conductor from a switch to the electrical device being controlled.
Time of Concentration
The time for storm water runoff to travel from the hydraulically most remote point in a drainage sub-basin to the point of investigation.
Trap
A fitting or device that provides a liquid seal to prevent the emission of sewer gases without materially affecting the flow of sewage or wastewater through the trap.
Universal Design
A user-friendly approach to design in the living environment where people of any culture, age, size, weight, race, gender, and ability can experience an environment that promotes their health, safety, and welfare today and in the future.
Valve
A fitting that is used to control the flow of fluid or gas.
Variance
A legal request by a property owner to allow a modification from a standard or a requirement in the zoning code.
Vent Pipe
A vertical pipe installed to provide circulation of air to and from any part of the drainage system.
Water Closet
A water-flushing plumbing fixture, such as a toilet, that is designed to receive and discharge human excrement.
Water Distributing Pipe
A pipe that carries water from the service to the point of use.
Water Heater
Any heating appliance or equipment that heats potable water and supplies such water to the potable hot water distribution system.
Water Meter
A device used to measure the amount of water that goes through the water service.
Water Service
The pipe from the water main or other supply to the water-distributing pipes.
Watt
A unit of measure of power.